Acromesomelic dysplasia is an extremely rare, inherited, progressive skeletal disorder that results in a particular form of short stature (short-limb dwarfism). The disorder is characterized by acromelia and mesomelia. Mesomelia describes the shortening of the bones of the forearms and forelegs relative to the upper parts of those limbs. Acromelia is the shortening of the bones of the hands and feet relative to the upper and middle limb segments. Thus, the short stature of affected individuals is the result of unusually short forearms and abnormal shortening of bones of the lower (distal) legs. These findings are apparent during the first years of life. Abnormal cartilage and bone development may also affect other bones of the body, particularly those of the hands and feet (i.e., metacarpals, phalanges, metatarsals). At birth, the hands and feet may appear abnormally short and broad. Over time, the apparent disproportion becomes even more obvious, especially during the first years of life. The fingernails and toenails may also appear unusually short and wide.
Affected individuals may have additional abnormalities resulting from abnormal cartilage and bone development, including limited extension of the elbows and arms and/or progressive abnormal curvature of the spine. Other characteristic abnormalities include a relatively enlarged head (macrocephaly), slightly flattened midface, and/or small, pug nose. AMD is inherited as an autosomal recessive genetic trait.
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